March of the Fossil Penguins

Fossil penguin discoveries and research

Archive for February 2016

How many feathers does a penguin have?

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How many feathers does a penguin have? It seems like a straightforward thing to address, but it is also exactly the type of basic natural history question that often gets overlooked. It appears that no one had taken the time to thoroughly calculate the number before. Surprisingly, previous accounts ranged from 11 feathers per square centimeter to 46 feathers per square centimeter, and did not even agree on what types of feathers the penguins have.


A (delightfully named) feathergram showing feathers from different parts of an Emperor Penguin. Image from Williams et al. (2015).

Feathers fulfill many functions beyond flight, including thermoregulation, camouflage, display, and waterproofing. Different types of feathers contribute to these functions. Contour feathers are large and stiff-vaned feathers that generally form the outer layer of a bird’s feather coat. Flight feathers are the contour feathers than create the airfoil of the wing. These feathers are large in volant birds, but in penguins the “flight” feathers are reduced to tiny, scale-like structures. Plumules are downy feathers with looser barbs and a soft, cottony texture. These feathers typically lie under the contour feathers and provide an insulating layer. Perhaps the weirdest type of feather is the obscure filoplume. Filoplumes are essentially small, bare feather shafts. They can serve no aerodynamic or insulatory purpose and are instead hypothesized to help birds detect the orientation of their larger feathers. Penguins have long been considered to lack filoplumes, but that turns out not to be the case.


A tiny filoplume, nestled at the base of a contour feather. Image from Williams et al. (2015).

A new study tackled the question of Emperor Penguin feather density, a compelling issue given the ability of these birds to survive extremely cold and windy conditions. The team salvaged Emperor Penguin carcasses from Antarctica and took small square patches of skin from different parts of the body.  Within each patch, they counted and mapped out the arrangement of different feather types. Whereas previous scientists had overlooked filoplumes in penguins, the team observed them nestled at the base of larger feathers. In fact, it seems that each contour feather on the body has its own associated filoplume. Overall, the most numerous feathers were the downy plumules, which were four times more abundant than contour feathers and filoplumes. This surfeit of downy insulation makes sense given the harsh environment Emperor Penguins inhabit. It may also play a role in locomotion, as a place to store air to release when speeding towards the surface (see more about Bubbling Penguins here).

So how many feathers does an Emperor Penguin have? It turns out density varies quite a bit around the penguin, from as low 5.8 feathers per square centimeter on the back of one penguin to 13.5 feathers per square centimeter on the front of another. The researchers extrapolated from their samples that the full body would have 144,000 to 180,000 total feathers.  Any volunteers to count them individually and confirm?


Reference: Williams CL, Hagelin JC, Kooyman GL. 2015 Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 20152033.

Written by Dan Ksepka

February 2, 2016 at 11:48 am

Posted in Uncategorized